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Campus - Health - 14.09.2020
Stopping the spread of coronavirus in universities
As universities prepare to welcome students back, infectious disease modelling experts at the University of Bristol have conducted a rapid review and developed a new epidemic model which contributed to evidence considered by SAGE to assess the effectiveness of different interventions that could stop the spread of Sars-CoV-2 in a university setting.

Innovation - 14.09.2020
ARPA-type funding gives green technology an 'innovation advantage'
ARPA-type funding gives green technology an ’innovation advantage’
Startups funded by US agency ARPA-E file patents at twice the rate of similar cleantech firms. Cambridge researcher argues that the UK should trial its own climate-focused ARPA as part of COVID-19 recovery package.

Astronomy / Space Science - Chemistry - 14.09.2020
Hints of life discovered on Venus
Hints of life discovered on Venus
A UK-led team of astronomers has discovered a rare molecule - phosphine - in the clouds of Venus, pointing to the possibility of extra-terrestrial 'aerial' life. The presence of life is the only known explanation for the amount of phosphine inferred by observations Paul Rimmer Astronomers have speculated for decades that high clouds on Venus could offer a home for microbes - floating free of the scorching surface, but tolerating very high acidity.

Career - 14.09.2020
’Evidence is crucial’ for philanthropists to determine charity donations says new research
Research from the University of Birmingham has concluded that the process of giving to charity has to be grounded in evidence rather than reaction.

Health - 14.09.2020
Flaws in UK Coronavirus testing system after comparison with other countries
New study reveals flaws in UK Coronavirus testing system after comparison with other countries A new research study comparing the UK's Covid testing response to five other nations suggests the failure of NHS Test and Trace to provide medical oversight over access to testing explains the faltering Coronavirus testing programme, rather than frivolous overuse by members of the public.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 14.09.2020
Hints of life on Venus
Hints of life on Venus
Synthesized false colour image of Venus, using 283-nm and 365-nm band images taken by the Venus Ultraviolet Imager (UVI). JAXA / ISAS / Akatsuki Project Team An international team of astronomers, led by Professor Jane Greaves of Cardiff University, today announced the discovery of a rare molecule - phosphine - in the clouds of Venus.

Health - 11.09.2020
Study to identify transmission risk of COVID-19 aerosols during medical procedures
Many operations, due to the potential risk of COVID-19 aerosols being generated, have been delayed or are being performed with additional personal protective equipment (PPE), which has greatly reduced NHS services. A new National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) and UK Research and Innovation (UKRI)-funded study will identify which medical procedures are truly aerosol generating and whether the virus remains viable in the aerosol produced.

Health - Social Sciences - 11.09.2020
How can we get pupils and staff back-to-school safely during COVID-19?
Ensuring pupils and staff stay safe when they return to school this autumn is a major challenge because there is very little scientific evidence on the incidence and transmission of COVID-19 within schools. A ground-breaking research project will test whether 5,000 staff and pupils have active or past COVID-19 infection, develop systems to help schools prevent and cope with an outbreak and assess strategies to support the mental wellbeing of the school community now and moving forward.

Health - Life Sciences - 11.09.2020
COVID-19 exposure and viral carriage in health care workers
2.4% of asymptomatic health care workers at work in Birmingham were carriers of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and over a third of those individuals subsequently became unwell with symptoms of COVID-19, a new cross-sectional study by researchers at the University of Birmingham and University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust has found.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 11.09.2020
Loss of sea otters accelerating the effects of climate change
The impacts of predator loss and climate change are combining to devastate living reefs that have defined Alaskan kelp forests for centuries, according to new research published in Science. "We discovered that massive limestone reefs built by algae underpin the Aleutian Islands' kelp forest ecosystem," said Douglas Rasher, a senior research scientist at Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences and the lead author of the study.

Physics - Materials Science - 10.09.2020
Computational modelling explains why blues and greens are brightest colours in nature
Computational modelling explains why blues and greens are brightest colours in nature
Researchers have shown why intense, pure red colours in nature are mainly produced by pigments, instead of the structural colour that produces bright blue and green hues.

Health - 10.09.2020
Autistic adults have a higher rate of physical health conditions
Autistic adults have a higher rate of physical health conditions
Autistic individuals are more likely to have chronic physical health conditions, particularly heart, lung, and diabetic conditions, according to a new study by researchers at the University of Cambridge. The results are published in the journal Autism. This is a first step in better understanding why autistic individuals are so much more likely to have chronic physical health problems Elizabeth Weir Earlier research has shown that autistic people on average die younger than others and that this may be, in part, due to chronic physical health conditions.

Health - Agronomy / Food Science - 10.09.2020
Older people in Sierra Leone face ’ticking time bomb’ of health issues - study
Three-quarters of people over-40 in Sierra Leone have at least one health factor that could contribute to cardiovascular disease - creating a ‘ticking time bomb' of death and disability in one of the world's poorest countries, a new study reveals. Researchers found that cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVDRFs) such as hypertension, diabetes and obesity are much more common in Sierra Leone than expected, whilst access to health care for these conditions is low.

Environment - Life Sciences - 10.09.2020
Global wildlife populations declined by two-thirds since 1970
Global wildlife populations declined by two-thirds since 1970
Global animal populations have on average declined by two-thirds in less than half a century, according to the WWF's Living Planet Report 2020 involving UCL researchers, released today. The Living Planet Index (LPI), provided by the Zoological Society of London (ZSL), shows that factors believed to increase the planet's vulnerability to pandemics such as COVID-19 - including land-use change and the use and trade of wildlife - were also some of the drivers behind the 68% average decline in global mammal, bird, amphibian, reptile and fish populations between 1970 and 2016.

Health - Life Sciences - 10.09.2020
Previously unknown 'genetic vulnerability' in breast cancer cells target of research
Previously unknown ’genetic vulnerability’ in breast cancer cells target of research
The study, published in the scientific journal  Nature , has uncovered a genetic vulnerability present in nearly 10% percent of all breast cancers tumours, and found a way to target this vulnerability and selectively kill cancer cells. Each year, over five thousand newly diagnosed cases of breast cancer in the UK alone will carry this particular genetic fault, a proportion roughly double that driven by hereditary mutations such as those in the well-known BRCA genes.

Life Sciences - 10.09.2020
Binge-drinkers' brains have to work harder to feel empathy for others
Binge-drinkers’ brains have to work harder to feel empathy for others
People who binge-drink show more extensive dysfunction across their brains than previously realised, a new study from the University of Sussex has shown. The research shows that binge-drinkers' brains have to put more effort into trying to feel empathy for other people in pain. The paper “Differential brain responses for perception of pain during empathic response in binge drinkers compared to non-binge drinkers? is published in the October 2020 edition of the Neuroimage: Clinical journal.

Health - Pharmacology - 10.09.2020
Punctured lung affects almost one in a hundred hospitalised COVID-19 patients
Punctured lung affects almost one in a hundred hospitalised COVID-19 patients
As many as one in 100 patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 develop a pneumothorax - a 'punctured lung' - according to a study led by Cambridge researchers. Doctors need to be alert to the possibility of a punctured lung in patients with COVID-19, even in people who would not be thought to be typical at-risk patients Stefan Marciniak Like the inner tube of bicycle or car tyre, damage to the lungs can lead to a puncture.

Health - Pharmacology - 10.09.2020
Discovery of four Covid-19 risk groups helps guide treatment
People who are admitted to hospital with Covid-19 can be divided into four distinct groups, according to data from the world's largest study of patients with the disease. Researchers identified the groups using clinical information and tests carried out upon arrival at hospital to predict the patients' risk of death - ranging from low to very high.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 10.09.2020
66 million years of Earth’s climate uncovered from ocean sediments
Changes in the Earth's climate over the last 66 million years have been revealed in unprecedented detail by a team involving UCL researchers, highlighting four distinctive climatic states and the natural millionand thousand-year variability that Earth's climate has experienced. , the new global "climate reference curve" created by the team is the first record to continually and accurately trace how the Earth's climate has changed since the great extinction of the dinosaurs 66 million years ago.

Physics - Astronomy / Space Science - 09.09.2020
AI shows how hydrogen becomes a metal inside giant planets
Researchers have used a combination of AI and quantum mechanics to reveal how hydrogen gradually turns into a metal in giant planets. The existence of metallic hydrogen was theorised a century ago, but what we haven't known is how this process occurs Bingqing Cheng Dense metallic hydrogen - a phase of hydrogen which behaves like an electrical conductor - makes up the interior of giant planets, but it is difficult to study and poorly understood.

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