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Environment - Earth Sciences - 25.02.2021
Earth’s Gulf Stream System at its weakest in over a millennium 
A new study involving researchers from UCL has found consistent evidence of a decline in ocean currents, with the Gulf Stream System, also known as the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), at its weakest in over 1,000 years.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 19.02.2021
New African groundwater maps reveal widespread resilience to climate change
New African groundwater maps reveal widespread resilience to climate change
Reserves of groundwater in much of the populated parts of Africa are being replenished at rates that could help to protect communities against the damaging effects of climate change, finds a new study co-authored by UCL. Published in the journal Environmental Research Letters , the study has revealed that the long-term groundwater recharge (the rate at which groundwater is replenished) in Africa is approximately 15,000 cubic km per decade - enough to sustain widespread groundwater pumping for drinking water and irrigatation for farming.

Earth Sciences - History / Archeology - 17.02.2021
Stonehenge first stood in Wales
Stonehenge first stood in Wales
Professor Mike Parker Pearson (UCL Institute of Archaeology) discusses his research which has found a dismantled stone circle in west Wales which was moved to Salisbury Plain and rebuilt as Stonehenge. According to Geoffrey of Monmouth, whose History of the Kings of Britain was written in 1136, the mysterious monoliths at Stonehenge were first spirited there by the wizard Merlin, whose army stole them from a mythical Irish stone circle called the Giants' Dance.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 10.02.2021
Emissions of banned ozone-depleting substance are back on the decline
Emissions of banned ozone-depleting substance are back on the decline
Global emissions of a potent substance notorious for depleting the Earth's ozone layer - the protective barrier which absorbs the Sun's harmful UV rays - have fallen rapidly and are now back on the decline, according to new research. Two international studies show emissions of CFC-11, one of the many chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) chemicals once widely used in refrigerators and insulating foams, are back on the decline less than two years after the exposure of their shock resurgence in the wake of suspected rogue production.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 27.01.2021
Pioneering research unravels hidden origins of Eastern Asia's ‘land of milk and honey'
Pioneering research unravels hidden origins of Eastern Asia’s ‘land of milk and honey’
A study has revealed for the first time the ancient origins of one of the world's most important ecosystems by unlocking the mechanism which determined the evolution of its mountains and how they shaped the weather there as well as its flora and fauna. It was previously thought Southern Tibet and the Himalaya were instrumental in turning the once barren land of eastern Asia into lush forests and abundant coastal regions which became home to a rich array of plant, animal and marine life, including some of the world's rarest species.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 25.01.2021
Blowin' in the wind: the mineral dust linked to ice melt
Blowin’ in the wind: the mineral dust linked to ice melt
Scientists believe a key nutrient transported by the wind is contributing to the growth of algal blooms on melting ice sheets. The presence of the blooms increases the rate at which the ice melts, causing sea levels to rise. The Greenland ice sheet – the second largest ice body in the world after the Antarctic ice sheet – covers almost 80%of the surface of Greenland.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 05.01.2021
Imminent sudden stratospheric warming to occur, bringing increased risk of snow over coming weeks
A new study, led by researchers at the Universities of Bristol, Exeter and Bath, helps to shed light on the winter weather we may soon have in store following a dramatic meteorological event currently unfolding high above the North Pole. Weather forecasting models are predicting with increasing confidence that a sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) event will take place today, 5 January 2021.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 21.12.2020
Muddying the waters: rock breakdown may play less of a role in regulating climate than previously thought
The weathering of rocks at the Earth's surface may remove less greenhouse gases from the atmosphere than previous estimates, says new research from the University of Cambridge.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 21.12.2020
Muddying the waters: rock breakdown may play less role of a role in regulating climate than previously thought
The weathering of rocks at the Earth's surface may remove less greenhouse gases from the atmosphere than previous estimates, says new research from the University of Cambridge.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 30.10.2020
New drone technology advances volcanic monitoring
Specially-adapted drones, developed by an international team involving scientists from the University of Cambridge, are transforming how we forecast eruptions by allowing close-range measurements of previously inaccessible and hazardous volcanoes These aerial measurements are pushing the frontiers of the current state-of-the-art in volcano monitoring Emma Liu The team, involving 20 researchers from seven countries, used long-range drones kitted out with a range of lightweight sensors to study the Manam volcano - one of the most active volcanoes in Papua New Guinea.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 30.10.2020
New drone technology improves ability to forecast volcanic eruptions
Specially-adapted drones developed by a UCL-led international team have been gathering data from never-before-explored volcanoes that will enable local communities to better forecast future eruptions. The cutting-edge research at Manam volcano in Papua New Guinea is improving scientists' understanding of how volcanoes contribute to the global carbon cycle, key to sustaining life on Earth.

Earth Sciences - Microtechnics - 30.10.2020
Specially-adapted drones gather new data from unexplored volcanoes
Specially-adapted drones developed by an international team including Bristol scientists have been gathering data from never-before-explored volcanoes that will enable local communities to better forecast future eruptions. The cutting-edge research at Manam volcano in Papua New Guinea is also improving scientists' understanding of how volcanoes contribute to the global carbon cycle, key to sustaining life on Earth.

Earth Sciences - 28.10.2020
Using a volcano’s eruption ‘memory’ to forecast dangerous explosions
Stromboli, the 'lighthouse of the Mediterranean', is known for its low-energy but persistent explosive eruptions, behaviour that is known scientifically as Strombolian activity. This feature has long been an attraction for tourists and volcanologists from all over the world. Occasionally, however, more intense and sudden explosions occur, most recently in July and August last year (2019).

Environment - Earth Sciences - 17.10.2020
Deep sea coral time machines reveal ancient CO2 burps
Analysis of the fossil remains of deep-sea corals (pictured here) were used to examine the history of the oceans and connections to global climate. Dann Blackwood, USGS Deep-sea corals Dann Blackwood, USGS Deep-sea corals Dann Blackwood, USGS 17 October 2020 The fossilised remains of ancient deep-sea corals may act as time machines providing new insights into the effect the ocean has on rising CO2 levels, according to new research carried out by the Universities of Bristol, St Andrews and Nanjing and published in Science Advances.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 16.10.2020
Ground-breaking discovery finally proves rain really can move mountains
First and corresponding author Dr Byron Adams in the steep terrain of the Greater Himalaya, central Bhutan. Second author Professor Kelin Whipple Looking upstream within a tributary of the Wang Chu, southwestern Bhutan. Dr Byron Adams The Ta Dzong overlooking the Paro Valley, western Bhutan. Dr Byron Adams 16 October 2020 A pioneering technique which captures precisely how mountains bend to the will of raindrops has helped to solve a long-standing scientific enigma.

Earth Sciences - History / Archeology - 28.09.2020
The testimony of trees: how volcanic eruptions shaped 2000 years of world history
Researchers have shown that over the past two thousand years, volcanoes have played a larger role in natural temperature variability than previously thought, and their climatic effects may have contributed to past societal and economic change. Some climate models assume that the effect of volcanoes is punctuated and short.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 25.09.2020
Tree rings show scale of Arctic pollution is worse than previously thought
The largest-ever study of tree rings from Norilsk in the Russian Arctic has shown that the direct and indirect effects of industrial pollution in the region and beyond are far worse than previously thought.

Physics - Earth Sciences - 23.09.2020
Scientists shine light on tiny crystals behind unexpected violent eruptions
This image shows the usual, gentle effusive eruption typical of Mt Etna (Italy). The erupted Etna rock is melted in a wire furnace on the synchrotron beamline at Diamond Light Source. Richard Brooker Nanolite 'snow' surrounding an iron oxide microlite 'Christmas tree'. Even these small 50 nm spheres are actually made up of even smaller nanolites aggregated into clumps.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 11.09.2020
Loss of sea otters accelerating the effects of climate change
The impacts of predator loss and climate change are combining to devastate living reefs that have defined Alaskan kelp forests for centuries, according to new research published in Science. "We discovered that massive limestone reefs built by algae underpin the Aleutian Islands' kelp forest ecosystem," said Douglas Rasher, a senior research scientist at Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences and the lead author of the study.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 10.09.2020
66 million years of Earth’s climate uncovered from ocean sediments
Changes in the Earth's climate over the last 66 million years have been revealed in unprecedented detail by a team involving UCL researchers, highlighting four distinctive climatic states and the natural millionand thousand-year variability that Earth's climate has experienced. , the new global "climate reference curve" created by the team is the first record to continually and accurately trace how the Earth's climate has changed since the great extinction of the dinosaurs 66 million years ago.
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