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Results 81 - 100 of 758.

Pharmacology - Health - 18.11.2022
Improving antimicrobial stewardship: RVC research reveals extent of systemic antimicrobial usage in UK equine practice
To mark World Antimicrobial Awareness Week, the Royal Veterinary College (RVC) has released new research using real-world antimicrobial prescription data to investigate the use of systemic antimicrobials in UK equine practice. The research, which is the first of its kind, reveals the extent to which antimicrobials are prescribed to equids and uncovers the lack of routine culture and sensitivity testing, particularly prior to the prescription of the 'last resort' Category B antimicrobials, whose efficacy needs to be preserved for the treatment of serious illnesses in human medicine.

Psychology - Health - 17.11.2022
Many adolescents game a lot without negative effects on their wellbeing
A new study published by University of Oxford researchers in an open-access journal, JMIR Pediatrics and Parenting , shows that although many school-age adolescents are spending considerable time gaming, it is not having a negative impact on the wellbeing. The OxWell Student Survey is one of the largest school surveys of adolescent health and wellbeing in England.

Health - 17.11.2022
Caring for the homeless in their own environment could prevent deaths
Caring for the homeless in their own environment could prevent deaths
Primary healthcare service outreach (PHSO) interventions, where patients are attended to in their own environment, could be key to improving health in the homeless population, finds a new UCL study. The life expectancy of people experiencing homelessness in the UK is currently 30 years shorter than that of the general population, and previous research has shown that a quarter of these deaths could have been prevented if a doctor had been seen in time.

Economics - 17.11.2022
AI tool predicts when a bank should be bailed out
An artificial intelligence tool developed by researchers at UCL and Queen Mary University of London could help governments decide whether or not to bail out a bank in crisis by predicting if the intervention will save money for taxpayers in the long term. The AI tool, described in a new paper in Nature Communications , assesses not only if a bailout is the best strategy for taxpayers, but also suggests how much should be invested in the bank, and which bank or banks should be bailed out at any given time.

Environment - 17.11.2022
COP must reverse rising pessimism over building sector decarbonisation, new study argues
COP must reverse rising pessimism over building sector decarbonisation, new study argues
Social media engagement with climate policy events is vital to reducing building emissions and ensuring environmental justice, research led by Cambridge suggests To build for tomorrow fairly, global climate action has to incorporate and empower diverse public voices Ramit Debnath Negativity on Twitter about decarbonising the built environment has increased by around a third since 2014, according to a new analysis of more than 250,000 tweets featuring #emissions and #building between 2009 and 2021.

Life Sciences - 17.11.2022
Education increases genetic risk of shortsightedness
Scientists have uncovered five genetic variants that increase a person's risk of becoming shortsighted the longer they stay in school. The research, led by Professor Jeremy Guggenheim of the University's School of Optometry and Vision Sciences, used genetic and health data from more than 340,000 participants with European ancestry.

Health - Pharmacology - 16.11.2022
Full vaccination more effective than boosters in preventing the spread of Covid
A small increase in the number of people having two vaccines against Covid-19 was more effective in controlling the virus during Europe's fourth wave - when the Omicron variant appeared - than the rapid uptake of booster vaccines, finds a new UCL-led study. Published in the International Journal of Public Health , the study found that a 4.2% increase in the number of people having two doses (full vaccination) led to a 54% reduction in case rates across Europe - despite the detection of the highly infectious Omicron.

Health - 16.11.2022
E-cigarettes are more effective than nicotine-replacement therapy in helping smokers quit
The latest Cochrane Review finds high certainty evidence that nicotine e-cigarettes are more effective than traditional nicotine-replacement therapy (NRT) in helping people quit smoking. Research led by the University of Oxford, and funded by Cancer Research UK , has found the strongest evidence yet that e-cigarettes, also known as 'vapes', help people to quit smoking better than traditional nicotine replacement therapies, such as patches and chewing gums.

Health - Life Sciences - 16.11.2022
Synthetic biology meets medicine: ’programmable molecular scissors’ could help fight COVID-19 infection
Cambridge scientists have used synthetic biology to create artificial enzymes programmed to target the genetic code of SARS-CoV-2 and destroy the virus, an approach that could be used to develop a new generation of antiviral drugs. XNAzymes are molecular scissors which recognise a particular sequence in the RNA, then chop it up Alex Taylor Enzymes are naturally occurring biological catalysts, which enable the chemical transformations required for our bodies to function - from translating the genetic code into proteins, right through to digesting food.

Health - Pharmacology - 16.11.2022
Preventing European cancer epidemic 
Europe will face a cancer epidemic in the next decade if weaknesses in cancer health systems and cancer research are not urgently addressed, say the authors of a major new report. The large-scale collaborative research project, in which the University is a key participant, warns that prioritising cancer research is crucial for European countries to deliver more affordable, higher quality, and more equitable cancer care.

Earth Sciences - Chemistry - 16.11.2022
Winchcombe meteorite holds information about the origin of Earth’s oceans
The Winchcombe meteorite, a rare carbonaceous meteorite which crashed onto a driveway in Gloucestershire, has been found to contain extra-terrestrial water and organic compounds that reveal insights into the origin of Earth's oceans. A new study led by experts from the Natural History Museum and the University of Glasgow reports the orbital history and first laboratory analyses of the Winchcombe meteorite, which was recovered only hours after its spectacular fireball lit up the skies over the UK in February 2021.

Life Sciences - 15.11.2022
Scientists grow concerned for the genetic health of otters in the UK
Long-term study reveals otter populations haven't reconnected genetically, despite strong recovery in population size. The genetic health of otters in Britain could be putting them at risk despite conservation efforts, according to a long-term study by Cardiff University's Otter Project. Studying data across two decades, the team has mapped for the first time the changing pattern of otter genetics.

Life Sciences - Health - 15.11.2022
Slow-moving shell of water can make Parkinson’s proteins ’stickier’
Water - which makes up the majority of every cell in the body - plays a key role in how proteins, including those associated with Parkinson's disease, fold, misfold, or clump together, according to a new study. The failure to look at the whole cellular environment has been limiting the field, which may be why we haven-t yet got an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease Gabriele Kaminski Schierle When attempting to discover potential treatments for protein misfolding diseases, researchers have primarily focused on the structure of the proteins themselves.

Health - 15.11.2022
Trial shows benefits of two forms of ankle surgery for osteoarthritis
Patients with advanced ankle osteoarthritis who undergo surgery see equally good outcomes from the two main surgical treatments for the condition, a new study led by UCL researchers has shown. The TARVA randomised clinical trial compared total ankle joint replacement with ankle fusion (when the ankle joint is pinned to prevent movement).

Psychology - Social Sciences - 15.11.2022
Feeling poorer than your friends in early adolescence is associated with worse mental health
How rich or poor young people think they are compared to their friendship group is linked to wellbeing and even bullying during the shift between childhood and teenage years. Belonging is particularly important for well-being and psychosocial functioning during adolescence Blanca Piera Pi-Sunyer Young people who believe they come from poorer backgrounds than their friends are more likely to have lower self-esteem and be victims of bullying than those who feel financially equal to the rest of their peer group, according to a new study from psychologists at the University of Cambridge.

Life Sciences - 15.11.2022
Nerve cell discovery may lead to better treatment for diseases of the nervous system
Nerve cell discovery may lead to better treatment for diseases of the nervous system
A discovery that may improve treatment options for patients with neurodegenerative diseases has been made by scientists at Bath and KCL. A discovery that may improve treatment options for patients with neurodegenerative diseases has been made by scientists at King's College London and the University of Bath.

Health - Life Sciences - 15.11.2022
New RVC research identifies changing epidemiology of harmful foetal disease
A new study from the Royal Veterinary College (RVC) highlights the changing epidemiology of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT), a foetal disease which affects approximately 190,000 pregnancies around the world each year, and the need for more extensive research to understand the underlying causes responsible for these changes.

Health - Life Sciences - 15.11.2022
Hope for drug treatment to slow neurodegenerative disease
New research provides hope for drug treatment to slow neurodegenerative disease Scientists have found a new drug treatment that can slow the progression of neurodegenerative disease in mice. The breakthrough research may offer fresh hope in tackling currently untreatable conditions such as Alzheimer's disease.

Astronomy / Space - 14.11.2022
Study of 'polluted' white dwarfs finds that stars and planets grow together
Study of ’polluted’ white dwarfs finds that stars and planets grow together
A team of astronomers have found that planet formation in our young Solar System started much earlier than previously thought, with the building blocks of planets growing at the same time as their parent star. Some white dwarfs are amazing laboratories, because their thin atmospheres are almost like celestial graveyards Amy Bonsor A study of some of the oldest stars in the Universe suggests that the building blocks of planets like Jupiter and Saturn begin to form while a young star is growing.

Health - Life Sciences - 14.11.2022
Key cause of type 2 diabetes uncovered
Oxford Research reveals high blood glucose reprograms the metabolism of pancreatic beta-cells in diabetes. Glucose metabolites (chemicals produced when glucose is broken down by cells), rather than glucose itself, have been discovered to be key to the progression of type 2 diabetes. In diabetes, the pancreatic beta-cells do not release enough of the hormone insulin, which lowers blood glucose levels.