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Results 21 - 40 of 895.


Environment - Earth Sciences - 11.09.2020
Loss of sea otters accelerating the effects of climate change
The impacts of predator loss and climate change are combining to devastate living reefs that have defined Alaskan kelp forests for centuries, according to new research published in Science. "We discovered that massive limestone reefs built by algae underpin the Aleutian Islands' kelp forest ecosystem," said Douglas Rasher, a senior research scientist at Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences and the lead author of the study.

Physics - Materials Science - 10.09.2020
Computational modelling explains why blues and greens are brightest colours in nature
Computational modelling explains why blues and greens are brightest colours in nature
Researchers have shown why intense, pure red colours in nature are mainly produced by pigments, instead of the structural colour that produces bright blue and green hues.

Health - 10.09.2020
Autistic adults have a higher rate of physical health conditions
Autistic adults have a higher rate of physical health conditions
Autistic individuals are more likely to have chronic physical health conditions, particularly heart, lung, and diabetic conditions, according to a new study by researchers at the University of Cambridge. The results are published in the journal Autism. This is a first step in better understanding why autistic individuals are so much more likely to have chronic physical health problems Elizabeth Weir Earlier research has shown that autistic people on average die younger than others and that this may be, in part, due to chronic physical health conditions.

Health - Agronomy / Food Science - 10.09.2020
Older people in Sierra Leone face ’ticking time bomb’ of health issues - study
Three-quarters of people over-40 in Sierra Leone have at least one health factor that could contribute to cardiovascular disease - creating a ‘ticking time bomb' of death and disability in one of the world's poorest counties, a new study reveals. Researchers found that cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVDRFs) such as hypertension, diabetes and obesity are much more common in Sierra Leone than expected, whilst access to health care for these conditions is low.

Environment - Life Sciences - 10.09.2020
Global wildlife populations declined by two-thirds since 1970
Global wildlife populations declined by two-thirds since 1970
Global animal populations have on average declined by two-thirds in less than half a century, according to the WWF's Living Planet Report 2020 involving UCL researchers, released today. The Living Planet Index (LPI), provided by the Zoological Society of London (ZSL), shows that factors believed to increase the planet's vulnerability to pandemics such as COVID-19 - including land-use change and the use and trade of wildlife - were also some of the drivers behind the 68% average decline in global mammal, bird, amphibian, reptile and fish populations between 1970 and 2016.

Health - Life Sciences - 10.09.2020
Previously unknown 'genetic vulnerability' in breast cancer cells target of research
Previously unknown ’genetic vulnerability’ in breast cancer cells target of research
The study, published in the scientific journal  Nature , has uncovered a genetic vulnerability present in nearly 10% percent of all breast cancers tumours, and found a way to target this vulnerability and selectively kill cancer cells. Each year, over five thousand newly diagnosed cases of breast cancer in the UK alone will carry this particular genetic fault, a proportion roughly double that driven by hereditary mutations such as those in the well-known BRCA genes.

Life Sciences - 10.09.2020
Binge-drinkers' brains have to work harder to feel empathy for others
Binge-drinkers’ brains have to work harder to feel empathy for others
People who binge-drink show more extensive dysfunction across their brains than previously realised, a new study from the University of Sussex has shown. The research shows that binge-drinkers' brains have to put more effort into trying to feel empathy for other people in pain. The paper “Differential brain responses for perception of pain during empathic response in binge drinkers compared to non-binge drinkers? is published in the October 2020 edition of the Neuroimage: Clinical journal.

Health - Pharmacology - 10.09.2020
Punctured lung affects almost one in a hundred hospitalised COVID-19 patients
Punctured lung affects almost one in a hundred hospitalised COVID-19 patients
As many as one in 100 patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 develop a pneumothorax - a 'punctured lung' - according to a study led by Cambridge researchers. Doctors need to be alert to the possibility of a punctured lung in patients with COVID-19, even in people who would not be thought to be typical at-risk patients Stefan Marciniak Like the inner tube of bicycle or car tyre, damage to the lungs can lead to a puncture.

Health - Pharmacology - 10.09.2020
Discovery of four Covid-19 risk groups helps guide treatment
People who are admitted to hospital with Covid-19 can be divided into four distinct groups, according to data from the world's largest study of patients with the disease. Researchers identified the groups using clinical information and tests carried out upon arrival at hospital to predict the patients' risk of death - ranging from low to very high.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 10.09.2020
66 million years of Earth’s climate uncovered from ocean sediments
Changes in the Earth's climate over the last 66 million years have been revealed in unprecedented detail by a team involving UCL researchers, highlighting four distinctive climatic states and the natural millionand thousand-year variability that Earth's climate has experienced. , the new global "climate reference curve" created by the team is the first record to continually and accurately trace how the Earth's climate has changed since the great extinction of the dinosaurs 66 million years ago.

Physics - Astronomy / Space Science - 09.09.2020
AI shows how hydrogen becomes a metal inside giant planets
Researchers have used a combination of AI and quantum mechanics to reveal how hydrogen gradually turns into a metal in giant planets. The existence of metallic hydrogen was theorised a century ago, but what we haven't known is how this process occurs Bingqing Cheng Dense metallic hydrogen - a phase of hydrogen which behaves like an electrical conductor - makes up the interior of giant planets, but it is difficult to study and poorly understood.

Health - Pharmacology - 09.09.2020
Patients set to benefit from new guidelines on Artificial Intelligence health solutions
Patients could benefit from faster and more effective introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) innovations to diagnose and treat disease - thanks to the first international standards for reporting of clinical trials for AI. As evaluation of health interventions involving machine learning or other AI systems moves into clinical trials, an international group has developed guidelines aiming to improve the quality of these studies and ensure that they are reported transparently.

Economics / Business - Environment - 08.09.2020
Multinationals’ supply chains account for a fifth of global emissions
A fifth of carbon dioxide emissions come from multinational companies' global supply chains, according to a new study led by UCL and Tianjin University that shows the scope of multinationals' influence on climate change. The study, published , maps the emissions generated by multinationals' assets and suppliers abroad, finding that the flow of investment is typically from developed countries to developing ones - meaning that emissions are in effect outsourced to poorer parts of the world.

Health - Life Sciences - 07.09.2020
New model predicts oesophageal cancer eight years early for half of all patients
New model predicts oesophageal cancer eight years early for half of all patients
DNA from tissue biopsies taken from patients with Barrett's oesophagus - a risk factor for oesophageal cancer - could show which patients are most likely to develop the disease eight years before diagnosis, suggests a study led by researchers at the University of Cambridge and EMBL's European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI).

Earth Sciences - Environment - 07.09.2020
'Wild West' mentality lingers in US mountain regions
’Wild West’ mentality lingers in US mountain regions
Distinct psychological mix associated with mountain populations is consistent with the theory that harsh frontiers attracted certain personalities.  This psychological fingerprint for mountainous areas may be an echo of the personality types that sought new lives in unknown territories Friedrich Götz When historian Frederick Jackson Turner presented his famous thesis on the US frontier in 1893, he described the "coarseness and strength combined with acuteness and acquisitiveness" it had forged in the American character.

Pharmacology - Health - 07.09.2020
Genetic study of proteins is a breakthrough in drug development for complex diseases
Genetic study of proteins is a breakthrough in drug development for complex diseases
An innovative genetic study of blood protein levels, led by researchers in the MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit (MRC-IEU) at the University of Bristol, has demonstrated how genetic data can be used to support drug target prioritisation by identifying the causal effects of proteins on diseases. Working in collaboration with pharmaceutical companies, Bristol researchers have developed a comprehensive analysis pipeline using genetic prediction of protein levels to prioritise drug targets, and have quantified the potential of this approach for reducing the failure rate of drug development.

Life Sciences - Health - 07.09.2020
Research unravels what makes memories so detailed and enduring
Research unravels what makes memories so detailed and enduring
In years to come, personal memories of the COVID-19 pandemic are likely to be etched in our minds with precision and clarity, distinct from other memories of 2020. The process which makes this possible has eluded scientists for many decades, but research led by the University of Bristol has made a breakthrough in understanding how memories can be so distinct and long-lasting without getting muddled up.

Psychology - 07.09.2020
Impact of returning to school on adolescent mental health the subject of a new study
Researchers from Oxford University have found that, during lockdown, teenagers mental health is struggling compared to their parents. The Oxford ARC study, launched in May, has found that teenagers consistently report higher levels of anxiety and depression than parents. Around 35% of teenagers are saying they feel lonely often or most of the time, compared to 17% of parents.

Life Sciences - Health - 07.09.2020
Raised blood pressure and diabetes alter brain structure to slow thinking speed and memory
In a new study, neuroscientists at Oxford University have found that raised blood pressure and diabetes in mid-life alter brain structure to slow thinking speed and memory. Looking at results from 22,000 volunteers in the UK Biobank who underwent brain scanning, the scientists found that raised blood pressure and diabetes significantly impaired the brain's cognitive functions, specifically the performance of thinking speed and short-term memory.

Health - Pharmacology - 05.09.2020
Scientists create blueprint to vaccinate in Bangladesh and beyond
Scientists create blueprint to vaccinate in Bangladesh and beyond
Scientists will work in Bangladesh to create a blueprint to help ensure that medics can get a COVID-19 vaccine to everyone who needs it across the Global South. Universal vaccine access is already a major challenge in low-income countries, due to the lack of robust refrigerated cooling networks especially to remote communities.

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