The University of Bristol research team investigated some of the chemical processes that underpin how brain cells co-ordinate their communication. Defects in this communication are associated with disorders such as epilepsy, autism and schizophrenia, and therefore these findings could lead to the development of novel neurological therapies.
Neurons in the brain communicate with each other using chemicals called neurotransmitters. This release of neurotransmitter from neurons is tightly controlled by many different proteins inside the neuron. These proteins interact with each other to ensure that neurotransmitter is only released when necessary. Although the mechanisms that control this release have been extensively studied, the processes that co-ordinate how and when the component proteins interact is not fully understood.
The School of Biochemistry researchers have now discovered that one of these proteins called ’RIM1 ?’ is modified by a small protein named ’SUMO’ which attaches to a specific region in RIM1 - . This process acts as a ’molecular switch’ which is required for normal neurotransmitter release.
Jeremy Henley, Professor of Molecular Neuroscience in the University’s Faculty of Medical and Veterinary Sciences and the study’s lead author, said: "These findings are important as they show that SUMO modification plays a vital and previously unsuspected role in normal brain function."
The research builds on the team’s earlier work that identified a group of proteins in the brain responsible for protecting nerve cells from damage and could be used in future for therapies for stroke and other brain diseases.
The study was funded by the European Research Council [ERC] , the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council [BBSRC] and the Medical Research Council [MRC].
’RIM1? SUMOylation is required for fast synaptic vesicle exocytosis’ by Professor Jeremy Henley et al is published in the journal Cell Reports.
Medical Research Council [MRC]
For almost 100 years the Medical Research Council has improved the health of people in the UK and around the world by supporting the highest quality science. The MRC invests in world-class scientists. It has produced 29 Nobel Prize winners and sustains a flourishing environment for internationally recognised research. The MRC focuses on making an impact and provides the financial muscle and scientific expertise behind medical breakthroughs, including one of the first antibiotics penicillin, the structure of DNA and the lethal link between smoking and cancer. Today MRC funded scientists tackle research into the major health challenges of the 21st century. www.mrc.ac.uk
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council [BBSRC]
The Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) invests in world-class bioscience research and training on behalf of the UK public. Our aim is to further scientific knowledge, to promote economic growth, wealth and job creation and to improve quality of life in the UK and beyond. Funded by Government, and with an annual budget of around £467M (2012-2013), we support research and training in universities and strategically funded institutes. BBSRC research and the people we fund are helping society to meet major challenges, including food security, green energy and healthier, longer lives. Our investments underpin important UK economic sectors, such as farming, food, industrial biotechnology and pharmaceuticals.
European Research Council
The European Research Council (ERC) encourages high-quality research in Europe through competitive funding and to support investigator-initiated frontier research across all fields of research, on the basis of scientific excellence.
These findings are important as they show that SUMO modification plays a vital and previously unsuspected role in normal brain function.
Jeremy Henley, Professor of Molecular Neuroscience in the University’s Faculty of Medical and Veterinary Sciences and the study’s lead author